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kidney stones

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Urinary Stones (Urolithiasis, Nephrolithiasis)

Urinary stones (calculi) are hardened mineral deposits that form in the kidney. They originate as microscopic particles and develop into stones over time.

Urinary stones may contain various combinations of chemicals. The most common type of stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. A less common type of stone is caused by infection in the urinary tract. This type of stone is called a struvite or infection stone. Much less common are the uric acid stone and the rare cystine stone.


Urinary stones usually arise because of the breakdown of a delicate balance. The kidneys must conserve water, but they must excrete materials that have a low solubility. These two opposing requirements must be balanced during adaptation to diet, climate, and activity. The problem is mitigated to some extent by the fact that urine contains substances that inhibit crystallization of calcium salts and others that bind calcium in soluble complexes. These protective mechanisms are less than perfect. When the urine becomes supersaturated with insoluble materials, because excretion rates are excessive and/or because water conservation is extreme, crystals form and may grow and aggregate to form a stone.


The first symptom of a kidney stone is extreme pain. The pain often begins suddenly when a stone moves in the urinary tract, causing irritation or blockage. Typically, a person feels a sharp, cramping pain the back and side in the area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen. Sometimes nausea and vomiting occur with this pain. Later, the pain may spread to the groin.

If the stone is too large to pass easily, the pain continues as the muscles in the wall of the tiny ureter try to squeeze the stone along into the bladder. As a stone grows or moves, blood may be found in the urine. As the stone moves down the ureter closer to the bladder, a person may feel the need to urinate more often or feel a burning sensation during urination.

If fever and chills accompany any of these symptoms, an infection may be present. In this case, a doctor should be contacted immediately.


The urologist will order laboratory tests, including urine and blood tests. He or she will also ask about the patient's medical history, occupation and dietary habits. If a stone has been removed, or if the patient has passed a stone and saved it, the lab can analyse the stone to determine its composition.

CT and X-Ray are the chief methods used to diagnose kidney stones. Ultrasound can also be used to detect stones and urinary obstruction.

Your doctor might ask you to undertake a battery of tests to confirm that the stone disease is not the result of any primary disease.


Conservative. If the stone is not causing any pain or blockage it may be monitored with ultrasound or xray as part of a “wait and see” approach.  If it moves or enlarges treatment may be recommended to prevent further complications

Pain from kidney stones If a stone causes a blockage of the drainage of urine from a kidney the kidney becomes acutely swollen and you can experience severe pain and vomiting (renal colic). If this happens you need urgent medical attention from either your local doctor or an emergency department. If the pain does not settle you may even need an operation to place an internal drain (stent) to unblock the kidney.

Endoscopic stone treatment Currently most kidney stones can be managed with slim telescopes (ureteroscopes) and laser fibres. These can be introduced up into the bladder and then passed up the ureter to directly visualize the stones where they are in the ureter or kidney. The laser fibres can thenbe used to destroy the stones into dust which washes out in the urine. This can be done as a day procedure and avoids long hospital admissions and painful cuts.

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